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Post Turkey Earthquake - Day 4: One last look at Ercis
Day 4: One last look at ErcisOn our last day, we decided to head toward the City of Ercis since the first day was raining it was very difficult to take photos and notes. With rescue operations transitioning to clean-up, the residents of the city were trying to access their apartments and businesses. We observed at least 20 collapsed buildings during our walk through the city. Collapsed buildings ranged from those more than 15 years old (noted by the use of smooth reinforcement) and those more recent (noted by the use of deformed reinforcement). Ties were 8mm (approx. 0.31 inch) diameter and typically spaced at 20cm (8 inches) to 25cm (10 inches) on-center. The common theme amongst all of the collapsed buildings, regardless of reinforcement type, was the use of large (sometimes up to 2" diameter) smooth aggregate. We ended our day at the only retrofitted school in the region and then headed off to the airport to return to Istanbul. Photo #1: We stayed at the University hotel in Van. The first night of my stay, we slept on the floor in the one-story portion on the left. We were a little uneasy, so we arranged our sleeping bags/blankets around one of the interior columns. The subsequent nights, we gained a little more courage and slept in beds on the second floor. During our stay, we felt about 6 aftershocks at least. We used our water bottles as a "motion sensor". It was a little uneasy staying in the building, but the building had minor damage only and we felt that there was a lot of "reserve" strength…occupiable as Chris likes to say… smilePhoto #2: The House of the University President on the University campus in Van. Each floor is approximately 5000 square feet. The former president was arrested for misusing University funds…the structure was constructed using the misappropriated funds…now it houses the new President. One of the two chimneys collapsed….no other damage was observed. Photo #3: The University library in Van. The only damaged observed was the out-of-plane infill wall collapse and a gable wall collapse. Note that although the structure performed well, the exit stairs were blocked due to the infill wall collapse.Photo #4: A school very close to the city center of Ercis. The school suffered little to no damage.Photo #5: A hospital in the city center of Ercis, very close to the collapsed building where television reporters were monitoring the progress of the rescue operations. This building was evacuated after the earthquake despite little to no visible damage. We spoke to a guard at the entrance and he indicated that the building had been green tagged and would be reoccupied within a week. Photo #6: A mosque in the city center of Ercis. The collapsed minarets were constructed in 2003. The minaret on the right collapsed toward the street, while the minaret on the left collapsed toward the back of the site onto an elevated structural slab. The remainder of the mosque had very little damage. Photo #7: A collapsed minaret (the one on the left of Photo #6). The minaret was constructed of block with very light reinforcement. The bottom portion of the collapsed minaret actually punched through the elevated structural slab. Photo #8: The wash room, where one goes to cleanse prior to entering the mosque. Note the opening in elevated slab on the left of the picture. Photo #9: Rubble from 5 collapsed buildings. An additional two buildings across the street from this site, also collapsed. See photo #10. Photo #10: Typical aggregate of the observed collapsed buildings. The aggregate was smooth and sometimes as large as 2" diameter. The deformed bars in this picture indicates that this building was constructed sometime after the late 1990's. Photo #11: A seismically retrofitted school outside of the city center of Ercis. The building performed very well. It had a total of 3 new shears walls with new foundations placed in the longitudinal direction. We were unable to confirm the location of the new shear walls in the transverse direction. The building was strengthened by constructing new concrete shear walls within the plane of the existing concrete frame. Photo #12: The existing concrete in the retrofitted school in Ercis is very poor. Large smooth aggregate was visible. Photo #13: The corridor of the retrofitted school in Ercis. Note the light damage at the infill walls on each side of the corridor. Only slight separation of the interface between and infill/frame was visible. Photo #14: The interior of a classroom at the retrofitted school in Ercis. The small window on the right is located in the new shear wall. No diagonal cracks or separation between the new concrete wall and the frame was visible.Photo #15: The office building in Ercis that was under construction when the earthquake hit. Photos of this building were included in Day 1, but we returned to take some better pictures. This photo is the base of a square column. The vertical column bars have buckled due to the lack of intermediate transverse ties. Photo #16: Similar to Photo #15, this is the base of a circular column that due to the lack of confinement has undergone vertical column bar buckling. Photo #17: The office building in Ercis that was under construction. The concrete stairs have acted like a strut and were damaged while trying to maintain deformation compatibility with the moment frame system.
Filed Under: Degenkolb, Earthquake
Posted by noblestudios on November 3, 2011 11:15 AM
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